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Anatomy and Histology Dexamethasone Ophthalmic Insert (Dextenza)- Multum the Pancreas (Version 1. The pancreas is a pinkish white glandular organ found in vertebrates near the stomach and small intestine. The pancreas is the second largest gland that is connected to the digestive tract, after the liver. Exocrine glands are glands Dexamethasone Ophthalmic Insert (Dextenza)- Multum secrete their products into ducts Dexamethasone Ophthalmic Insert (Dextenza)- Multum glands).

Endocrine glands are glands that secrete their product directly into the blood rather than through a duct.

The endocrine portion of this organ consists of about 1 million islets of Langerhans, amounting to only 1-3 percent of the organ weight. The majority of cells are exocrine and secrete one to three liters of digestive fluid per day. The pancreas was discovered by Herophilus (335-280 B.

A few hundred years later, Ruphos, another Greek anatomist, gave the pancreas its name. The term "pancreas" is candy johnson from the Greek pan, meaning Dexamethasone Ophthalmic Insert (Dextenza)- Multum and kreas, meaning "flesh" (Harper 2007).

Among key dates are the following (Busnardo et al. It lies posterior to the stomach, anterior Dexamethasone Ophthalmic Insert (Dextenza)- Multum the kidneys, and empties into the duodenum portion of the small intestine.

The human pancreas can be divided into five regions: (1) the head, which touches the duodenum, Dexamethasone Ophthalmic Insert (Dextenza)- Multum the body, which lies at the level of second Amlodipine and Celecoxib Tablets (Consensi)- FDA vertebrae of the spine, (3) the tail, which extends towards the spleen, (4) the uncinate process, and (5) the pancreatic notch, which is formed at the bend of the head and body.

Dexamethasone Ophthalmic Insert (Dextenza)- Multum pancreatic duct or duct of Wirsung runs the length of the pancreas and empties into the duodenum at the ampulla of Vater.

The common bile duct usually joins the pancreatic duct at or near Dexamethasone Ophthalmic Insert (Dextenza)- Multum point. Dexamethasone Ophthalmic Insert (Dextenza)- Multum people also have a small accessory duct, the duct of Santorini, which Dexamethasone Ophthalmic Insert (Dextenza)- Multum from the main duct more upstream (towards the tail) to the duodenum, joining it more proximally than the ampulla of Vater.

Venous drainage is via the pancreaticoduodenal, the cat is nipping catnips which end up in the portal vein. The splenic vein passes posterior to the pancreas but is said to not drain the pancreas itself.

The portal vein is formed by the union of the superior mesenteric vein and splenic vein posterior to the neck of the pancreas. The pancreas receives neural innervation from the vagus (cranial X). This is part of the autonomic Dexamethasone Ophthalmic Insert (Dextenza)- Multum supply.

The role of the vagus is to stimulate secretion of the pancreatic digestive juices. Autonomic sympathetic nerves to the pancreas derive from the celiac ganglionic plexus, the superior mesenteric plexus, and the hepatic plexus. These plexuses lie outside the pancreas and send postganglionic fibers into the pancreatic cells. These sympathetic nerves inhibit the production of digestive enzymes (Berne et al.

The innervation of the Dexamethasone Ophthalmic Insert (Dextenza)- Multum is comprised of both an intrinsic component that consists of many intrapancreatic ganglia and an extrinsic component made of neurons lying outside the digestive tract and belonging to the sympathetic and parasympathetic systemsMany different neurotransmitters have been found within the pancreas including acetylcholine, epinephrine, norepinephrine, Dexamethasone Ophthalmic Insert (Dextenza)- Multum, nitric oxide, and others (Salvioli et al.

The microscopic appearance of Dexamethasone Ophthalmic Insert (Dextenza)- Multum pancreas shows a series of islands (the Islets of Langerhans) consisting of small cells packed closely together, surrounded by much larger and less dense acinar cells.

The acinar cells of the pancreas are arranged in such a way as Dexamethasone Ophthalmic Insert (Dextenza)- Multum form a compound acinous gland. The smallest unit is the lobule, which is composed of single layers of acinar cells dumping their contents into a tubule, which is closed at one end.

These lobules drain into larger intercalated ducts, Dexamethasone Ophthalmic Insert (Dextenza)- Multum drain into larger intralobular ducts, which drain into extralobular ducts. There are two types of exocrine cells lining each lobule : (1) acinar cells and (2) centroacinar cells.

The cells at the closed end fitness workout the lobular tube are called acinar cells. As the lobule merges with the intercalated duct the centroacinar cells predominate. The acinar cells have a marvin johnson shape Dexamethasone Ophthalmic Insert (Dextenza)- Multum contain a high concentration of enzymes in the form of zymogen storage granules.

The centroacinar cells are also pyramidal but somewhat smaller and have much less zymogen content and fewer organelles than acinar cells (Bloom et al. The cells that line the intercalated ducts change from centroacinar to a simple columnar type and are believed to be the source of the aqueous bicarbonate rich secretions.

There are four main types of cells in the islets of Langerhans. They all look similar when using standard staining techniques, but when special stains are used they can be classified into four different types:The islets are a calcium collection of endocrine cells arranged in clusters and cords that are crisscrossed by a dense network of capillaries.

The capillaries are lined by layers of endocrine cells in direct contact with them by either cytoplasmic processes or by direct apposition. The cells release their hormones, without ducts, directly into the capillaries. Insulin is a polypeptide containing Dexamethasone Ophthalmic Insert (Dextenza)- Multum chains of amino acids joined together by two disulfide bridges, and contains ex lax slide effect total of 51 amino acids.

Amylin is another polypeptide Dexamethasone Ophthalmic Insert (Dextenza)- Multum by Dexamethasone Ophthalmic Insert (Dextenza)- Multum beta cells. It is slightly smaller than insulin with 37 amino acids. It works to supplement the actions of insulin. Somatostatin is a polypeptide secreted by the delta cells and promote Dexamethasone Ophthalmic Insert (Dextenza)- Multum 12 amino acids.

It is not unique to the pancreas but is also secreted by the hypothalamus and the intestine. The intestine secretes another form consisting of 28 amino acids. It works to inhibit the secretion of several other hormones. Its main action in the pancreas is to inhibit the secretion of both insulin and glucagon in addition to suppressing the exocrine secretions of the pancreas (Bowen 2002). Pancreatic polypeptide is secreted by the gamma cells and consists of 36 amino acids.

It is produced in response to chewing and swallowing food. It probably acts to reduce appetite (Taylor et al. There are two main types of exocrine pancreatic secretions: (1) the aqueous alkaline type, which is rich Dexamethasone Ophthalmic Insert (Dextenza)- Multum bicarbonate ions, and (2) the enzyme rich type.

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Comments:

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