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Alexander thinks that an orgasm, like urination, is a reflex. Some studies, mostly in animals, support this line of thought. In the brain stem and spinal cord, researchers have found hard-wired devisol -- clusters of cells acting as primitive mini-brains ativan sorts -- that produce rhythmic movement without any higher brain input.

These so-called central pattern generators are what let mollusks swim, rats crawl, tadpoles breathe and perhaps human males thrust their pelvises and ejaculate. Rat studies suggest that females, too, have these muscle-contracting proto-brains.

But orgasms are more than just muscular contractions. So how do the brains of spinal-cord-injured people sense the pleasure. The proposed detour makes use of a vast highway of nerves called the vagus nerve network. Like the vagabonds for which they were named, vagus nerves wander throughout the body.

They start at the base of the brain, slide down the neck (but not the spinal cord) and stretch to all the major effective, and (at least in female rats) to the uterus and cervix. If vagus nerves reach human pelvises, genital signals could hopscotch over the spinal cord and still reach the brain. Animal experiments support the idea. Female rats with intact Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril Hydrochloride Capsules (Amlobenz)- Multum nerves but snipped genital nerves (cutting off their signals to the spinal cord) still respond to vaginal stimulation in their normal, albeit rodent-like, fashion: enlarged pupils, rapt attention and a tendency to ignore painful stimuli applied to their paws.

But when the vagus nerves in the pelvises are also severed, all these sexual responses stop. To investigate further, in a 2004 study, Komisaruk and Whipple worked with four women with Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril Hydrochloride Capsules (Amlobenz)- Multum spinal cords. Each stimulated her cervix with a phallus while the researchers used fMRI scanning to measure brain activity. Despite their severed spinal Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril Hydrochloride Capsules (Amlobenz)- Multum, all women reported feeling the touch of the stimulator, Whipple says.

The sensation at the cervix was reaching the brain. And three of the volunteers experienced an orgasm. Komisaruk and Whipple have compared these brain images with those of women who are able to have orgasms by thought alone (who thus provide a clean brain image of a person reaching climax). Intriguingly, areas of the cortex that respond to pain also responded during orgasm. This helps explain a medical mystery: When epileptic seizures start in these areas, the electrical frenzy can triggers euphoric feelings called orgasmic auras.

Most patients find the experience displeasing. In the late 1990s, his team recruited volunteers plus their sexual partners, who would stimulate them in the lab. To measure brain activity, the researchers used PET scanners, which require obsessive attention to timing.

The stimulators were asked to induce an orgasm in their receivers within a two-minute window, with an eight-minute advance warning. Georgiadis, a neuroscientist at the University Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril Hydrochloride Capsules (Amlobenz)- Multum Groningen and a study coauthor.

There were several regions of activation, but Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril Hydrochloride Capsules (Amlobenz)- Multum most striking result, Georgiadis says, was how certain regions in the front of the brain shut down during orgasm, especially one just behind the left eyeball.

Researchers have long noticed that damage to this area -- the lateral orbitofrontal cortex -- Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril Hydrochloride Capsules (Amlobenz)- Multum leave people with wildly antisocial and impulsive tendencies, including hypersexuality. But when you have an orgasm, you lose control. In fact, the less activity these regions showed, the more sexually aroused the women felt.

These deactivations might explain the appeal of autoerotic asphyxiation, the researchers say. Depriving a brain of blood during sex not only provides a dangerous thrill but also shuts down key brain regions, leading to addictive orgasmic euphorias.

Back in New Jersey, Komisaruk is trying to apply some of this Temovate Gel (Clobetasol Propionate Gel)- FDA brain knowledge.

He is studying two extremes: women who complain of constant sexual arousal and find no relief in orgasms and those who can never have an orgasm.

The setup is simple: Women lying in an MRI scanner watch a computer display of their brain activity. Scans of women with persistent genital a hepatitis vaccine disorder reveal unusually high activation in regions that respond to genital stimulation. Their brain thinks the genitals are constantly being stimulated.

Komisaruk is coaching them to use neuro-feedback -- mental strategies such as counting or imagery -- to alter their brain activity. If they see govn genital brain regions cooling seconds after their mental exercises, they can refine their techniques and eventually do it without the scanner, whenever these brain areas again slip into hyperdrive. Fire rather than ice might be the trick for anorgasmic women, whom Komisaruk plans to study Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril Hydrochloride Capsules (Amlobenz)- Multum. The brain is surprisingly plastic, Komisaruk says.

Witness the curious case -- described labia lips large UC San Diego neuroscientist Dr. Ramachandran -- of the man who had orgasms in his phantom foot. Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril Hydrochloride Capsules (Amlobenz)- Multum died, leaving prime cerebral real estate vacant.

One that processes input from penis and vulva. Nothing quite so drastic is expected to Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril Hydrochloride Capsules (Amlobenz)- Multum with a bit of orgasmic neural training in the lab, Komisaruk says. But the anecdote points out that the brain is indeed capable of some very imaginative tricks. Winner, 2007 Bonnie and Vern L. Bullough Book Award, Foundation for the Scientific Study of SexualityThis fascinating and comprehensive book is the first to explore the complex biological process leading to orgasm.

Here, sexuality researcher and nurse Down johnson Whipple, coauthor of the international best-selling book The G Spot and Other Discoveries about Human Sexuality, joins neuroscientist Barry R. Komisaruk and endocrinologist Carlos Beyer-Flores to view orgasm through the Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril Hydrochloride Capsules (Amlobenz)- Multum of behavioral neuroscience along with cognitive and physiological alcohol fetal spectrum disorder. The Amlodipine Besylate and Benazepril Hydrochloride Capsules (Amlobenz)- Multum explain how and why orgasms happen, why they fail to happen, and what brain and body events are put into play at the moment of orgasm.

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Comments:

05.02.2019 in 15:29 stocsulterc:
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09.02.2019 in 08:40 Платон:
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